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Peabody Journal of Education, Volume 86, Issue 2, 2011

Social Cohesion: An International Perspective

In the latest issue of the Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, guest editor Stephen Heyneman follows up on an issue published five years ago examining how various organizations (e.g., private businesses, education institutions, the public sector, etc.) influence social cohesion. This most recent issue adds to the discussion by exploring social cohesion-a measure of the trust that a society's members have in each other-from a global perspective. The motivation for this issue came out of a graduate-level class taught by Heyneman in Fall 2009 titled "Organizations and Social Cohesion" at Peabody College.

"Social Cohesion: An International Perspective" begins with an introductory piece in which Heyneman describes the importance of a cohesive society. When the public, private, and nonprofit sector work together to cultivate social cohesion, the society can face everything from natural disasters to severe recessions without falling into civil unrest. While closely linked, social cohesion differs from social capital in that social cohesion is the product of trust-infused behavior to which social capital gives rise. Without social capital, people do not understand the importance of connections and reciprocity, and thus do not act in a way that builds confidence in one another.

Rosenberg begins the issue by looking at the role of history museums in building social cohesion. In particular, she focuses on the ways in which museums and historic sites can open up dialogue and bridge ties between people with contrasting opinions. Parton extends the conversation by examining two organizations that build social cohesion across regions-the European Union and the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR). Their impact on establishing intra-regional cohesion hinges upon their ability to create political and economic ties through the institutions that enable them. An article by Koonce compares two types of organizations-ones that pursue social cohesion directly and ones that view it as a by-product of other organizational goals-and concludes that the latter route may be more effective.

Hill examines the fragmented education system of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the ways in which various aspects of the system have the potential to bridge ethnic divides and build a more cohesive society. On a similar note, Woodrooffe considers the role of higher education institutions in addressing the Black/White split in post-apartheid South Africa. A significant restructuring of the South African higher education system condensed the number of institutions from 36 to 21, and positioned higher education to take on a leading role in promoting cohesion in society at large. By investing in children-and building future social capital-private tutoring is one means of increasing social cohesion, but Heyneman also explores how it can detract from it. A final piece by Drake assesses the quality and content of various comparative and international education graduate programs in the US.

The Peabody Journal of Education would like to extend its gratitude to Stephen Heyneman for organizing this excellent issue. The PJE is thankful as well to all the authors for their contributions, without which this follow-up issue on social cohesion would not have been possible. We hope practitioners and researchers alike will find this discussion of social cohesion in the international context insightful and useful.

CONTENTS
Journal abstracts are linked to titles.

Introduction to Social Cohesion: An International Perspective
Stephen P. Heyneman
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 113-114.

History Museums and Social Cohesion: Building Identify, Bridging Communities, and Addressing Difficult Issues
Tracy Jean Rosenberg
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 115-128.

Stability for Development, Development for Stability: The Relationship Between Regional Organizations and Social Cohesion Through the Lens of the EU and MERCOSUR
Brent T. Parton
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 129-143.

Social Cohesion as the Goal: Can Social Cohesion Be Directly Pursued?
Kelly A. Koonce
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 144-154.

Possibilities for Social Cohesion in Education: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Kelly Hill
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 155-170.

When Visions of the Rainbow Nation are Not Enough: Effect of Post-Apartheid Higher Education Reform on Social Cohesion in South Africa
Dhruneanne D. Woodrooffe
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 171-182.

Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion
Stephen P. Heyneman
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 183-188.

U.S. Comparative and International Graduate Programs: An Overview of Programmatic Size, Relevance, Philosophy, and Methodology
Timothy A. Drake
Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 86, No. 2: pages 189-210.


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