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Evaluation of an Extended School Day Program for African American Males in the Context of Single Gender Schooling and Schoolwide Reform: A Case for Extending the School Day for African American Males

Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 88, No. 4

Olatokunbo S. Fashola


This article presents the results of the 2nd-year evaluation of an after-school program designed for an extended school day program serving African American middle school students in the city of Baltimore, Maryland (ACCESS-West). This study describes the effects of schoolwide reform especially as it relates to single-gender schools, educating African American males, and extending the school day. The ACCESS-West program goals included improving academic achievement, improving student attitude toward school, decreasing chronic truancy and absenteeism, and increasing parental engagement and involvement. Second-year results reveal that three of the four goals were met but that the interplay between schoolwide reform and implementing the extended-day program had mixed effects on the program. Staffing and administrational changes and high percentages of special needs students adversely affected the program and results. Dedication, commitment, and implementation positively contributed to the outcomes of the 2nd-year results. The results contribute to the growing body of literature and research that continues to investigate the effects of single-gender schools on minority males. The results suggest that the schools need a number of years to establish their areas of staffing, administration, curriculum, and student enrollment before the results they can expect positive results. These results also suggest that providing African American males with an extended-day program that is flexible, yet structured, can provide positive results academically, behaviorally, and with the challenges of parental engagement and involvement.


Olatokunbo (Toks) S. Fashola is an Adjunct Research Scientist and a Faculty Associate at the Johns Hopkins University, and a Principal Research Scientist and Vice President for Evaluation at Math Education Research Associates. At the Johns Hopkins University, she conducts research and publishes in the areas of comprehensive school reform, academic achievement of African American males, at-risk students, after-school and extended-day programs, and STEM education and research. She is author of three books, including Building Effective Afterschool Programs and Educating African American Males: Voices From the Field. Dr. Fashola has also conducted research on effective programs for students in need of additional academic services in grades K-12 and specifically geared toward middle and high school students and out-of-school-time learning experiences. Dr. Fashola is also currently the evaluator of five National Science Foundation STEM projects and one U.S. Department of Education STEM project.