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Hard Bigotry, Low Expectations and Soft Support: Educating American African Boys in the United States with the Warrior Method

Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, Vol. 88, No. 4

Raymond A. Winbush


Educating American Africans boys has been a mixture of political rhetoric, educational pedagogy, and historical neglect. Although American African educators have produced several models for effectively educating Black boys, most of them are dismissed as too “radical” by White researchers who have little understanding or experience in observing these models in action. A brief review of educational approaches involving American African boys concludes that “epistemological racism” inhibits understanding how cultural differences influence learning among American African boys. The warrior method is one such model and is presented as just one alternative to traditional methods of educating Black boys.


Raymond A. Winbush is the Director of the Institute for Urban Research at Morgan State University. He received his B.A. in psychology from Oakwood University and earned both his M.A. and Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Chicago. He has taught at Oakwood, Alabama A&M, Vanderbilt, and Fisk Universities. He is the author of The Warrior Method: A Parents’ Guide to Rearing Healthy Black Boys, Should America Pay?: Slavery and the Raging Debate on Reparations and Belinda's Petition: A Concise History of Reparations for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade. He has lectured in Europe, Australia, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean on the contributions of Africans to world culture. Winbush has made appearances on the Oprah Winfrey Show, CNN, and CBS discussing racism and culture. A former board member of the National Council for Black Studies, he currently sits on the editorial board of Journal of Black Studies.